A person may have more than one substance use disorder at a time, such as alcohol use disorder and cocaine use disorder. Substance use disorder can significantly affect your health, relationships, and overall quality of life. It's crucial to seek help as soon as you have signs of LDS. Although these substances are very different from each other, they all strongly activate the brain's reward center and produce feelings of pleasure.
People can use substances from time to time without developing SUD syndrome, but even a few episodes of using certain substances can cause tolerance and dependence. Tobacco, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, cannabis, and benzodiazepines are substances to which you can develop tolerance and dependence. Substance use disorder can be mild, moderate, or severe. Addiction is the most serious form of LDS.
It involves the continuous use of substances despite negative consequences. Substance addiction occurs when the brain's reward system “takes over and amplifies the compulsive pursuit of substances.”. Both involve the development of physical dependence and psychological dependence. People are psychologically dependent when a drug is so central to their thoughts, emotions, and activities that the need to continue using it becomes a desire or a compulsion despite negative consequences.
With physical dependence, your body has adapted to the presence of the substance and withdrawal symptoms occur if you suddenly stop taking the medication or if you take a reduced dose. Mental health condition classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), have become more sophisticated over time. The term “substance use disorder” allows for greater clarity in the diagnosis. The SUD also recognizes a spectrum of problematic substance use, not just physiological addiction.
Substance use disorder affects people of all ages, races, genders, and socioeconomic levels. More than 20 million people in the United States have at least one SUD. Approximately 20% of people in the U.S. UU.
People with depression or an anxiety disorder also have a substance use disorder. Tobacco use disorder is the most common substance use disorder worldwide and in the United States. It's essential to seek medical attention as soon as you have signs of a substance use disorder. The substances affect the brain, especially the brain's reward center.
Human beings are biologically motivated to seek rewards. Often these rewards come from healthy behaviors. When you spend time with a loved one or eat delicious food, your body releases a chemical called dopamine, which makes you feel pleasure. It becomes a cycle; you seek out these experiences because they reward you with good feelings.
The substances also send massive surges of dopamine through the brain. But instead of feeling motivated to do the things you need to survive (eat, work, and spend time with loved ones), these massive levels of dopamine can cause harmful changes that affect your thoughts, feelings, and behavior. This can create an unhealthy drive to seek more pleasure in substance and less in healthier experiences. Over time, substances change your brain chemistry and you become insensitive to their effects.
So you need more to produce the same effect. For some substances, such as opioids, withdrawal symptoms are so severe that they create significant motivation to continue using them. Studies show that genetic factors are responsible for 40 to 60% of vulnerability to any substance use disorder. If you have a first-degree relative (biological sibling or parent) with LDS, you're more likely to develop it.
Scientists are working to locate specific genes that may contribute to this vulnerability. For example, they have discovered that a change in the CHRNA2 gene on chromosome 8 is associated with cannabis use disorder, including diagnosis at an earlier age. SUD and other mental health conditions are caused by overlapping factors, such as genetic vulnerabilities, problems with similar areas of the brain, and environmental influences. Research shows that mental illness can contribute to SUD and that SUD can contribute to the development of mental illness.
ACEs are strongly linked to the development of a wide range of health problems throughout a person's life, including SUD. The more ACE a child experiences, the greater the risk of developing SUD at some point in their life. A single test can't diagnose substance use disorder. Instead, health care providers rely on a thorough evaluation of your medical history and behaviors related to substance use.
They can request drug testing and evaluate prescription drug control program reports. The provider will also ask about your mental health history, since it's common to have a Southern Syndrome disorder and a mental health condition. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-) of the American Psychiatric Association, a person must have at least two signs in the symptom section for 12 months to be diagnosed with a substance use disorder. Effective treatments are available for substance use disorder.
Treatment is highly individualized: a person may need different types of treatment at different times. Treatment for SUD often requires ongoing care to be effective, since SUD is a chronic condition with the potential for both recovery and relapse. Because people with SUD often have co-occurring mental health conditions, it's generally best to treat them together rather than separately. During detoxification, you stop taking the substance (s), allowing them to leave your body.
Depending on the severity of the SUD, the substance or an alternative may be gradually phased out to decrease the effects of withdrawal. It is the first important step in treatment for SUD. You can undergo detoxification in both inpatients and outpatients. Psychotherapy (talk therapy) can help treat SUD and any other co-occurring mental health condition.
The therapy also teaches healthy coping mechanisms. Health care providers may recommend cognitive and behavioral therapies alone or in combination with medication. Participating in self-help programs, such as Narcotics Anonymous, can also play an important role in treating SUD. These programs support behavior modification through self-help and peer support.
The underlying principle of these programs is that people with SUD must understand that they have a chronic illness that will never go away. Group therapy helps people with SUD maintain self-control and moderation. Medications can be part of your treatment plan. Medications can help modify brain chemistry to help treat certain SUDs.
They can also alleviate cravings and withdrawal symptoms. The risk of substance use increases significantly in times of stress and change. For an adult, divorce, the loss of a job, or the death of a loved one can increase the risk of substance use. For a teen, moving, divorcing the family, or changing schools can increase their risk.
It's important to turn to healthy coping mechanisms during these times of change, such as exercising, meditating, or learning a new hobby. Consider seeing a mental health professional if you have problems managing stress. Substance Use Disorder Is a Lifelong Illness. However, people can recover and lead full lives.
Getting help is essential for recovery. Different tools work for different people, but ongoing therapy and self-help groups, such as Narcotics Anonymous, help many. People who are in recovery are more likely to return to substance use. Recurrence can occur even years after the last time you took the substance.
Because of the possibility of relapse, it needs continuous treatment. Your healthcare provider should review your treatment plan with you and change it based on your changing needs. The complications of substance use disorder are extensive and may depend on the type of substance use. If you are currently taking a prescription medication and are concerned that you may be developing a dependency, talk to your health care provider right away.
If you think your child may be using substances, ask for help as soon as possible. Substance use disorder is a complex mental and brain health condition. Substances such as alcohol, stimulants, and opioids affect the brain, including the ability to make decisions. These changes make it difficult to stop taking the substance, even if you want to.
If you or a loved one has a substance use disorder, talk to a health care provider as soon as possible. A trained provider can guide you to the treatment you need. Learn more about our editorial process. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center.
Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse products or services that are not from Cleveland Clinic. People entering treatment for mental illness should be tested for substance use disorders and also for mental illness. However, it can be difficult to diagnose co-occurring disorders, because the symptoms of several mental health conditions and substance use disorders often overlap.
Comprehensive assessment tools aid in the diagnosis process. 4.There are many factors to consider when choosing an alcoholic rehabilitation center. These factors include the level of care, the treatment modalities and therapies offered, the affordability and insurance coverage, and the availability of any specialized program you want. Before starting the admission process to a rehabilitation center, take some time to do some research on your own and find out what you're looking for.
If you're wondering if your health insurance can cover dual diagnosis treatment at a nearby American Addiction Center rehabilitation center, simply fill out the form below with the required information and an AAC admissions counselor will contact you shortly to discuss your treatment options. Sherry has more than a decade of experience writing articles on health and wellness (including topics on mental health and substance use disorders); she also led a small team of writers in the position of editor-in-chief of a health and wellness website for the elderly. The role of pharmacotherapy for these dual-diagnosed patients is well established, but non-pharmacological approaches to its treatment are still evolving. Good quality studies are needed to establish the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in people with serious mental illnesses and substance abuse, especially in the Indian environment.
Alcoholism rehabilitation can be expensive; be sure to check with your insurance company for in-network programs. .